US President Donald Trump has warned Chinese President Xi Jinping that the US trade deficit with the Chinese continues to grow and that this situation is not sustainable for the country’s economy. The White House said Trump and Xi had been on the phone Monday night in Washington when it was Tuesday in Beijing. The two also spoke about diplomatic progress on the conflict in the region of the Korean peninsula. “President Trump expressed his disappointment that the US trade deficit with China continued to grow, and made it clear that this situation is not sustainable,” the White House said. China’s trade surplus with the United States grew 13 percent in 2017, the first year of Trump’s government to reach $ 288 billion, according to official data released by Beijing.
In her famous 1992 study of networked relationships in entrepreneurial settings, entrepreneurship professor Andrea Larson (University of Virginia), observed how network form of governance highlight ‘reputation, trust, reciprocity and mutual interdependence, and how social control is one of the possible governance mechanisms of network organizational forms.
As it is well-known, networks are a governance mechanism that provides an alternative to both markets and hierarchies. While markets – at least in their most abstract conceptualization – are limited to the private sector, and hierarchies are confined to the public sector, networks span across the public, private, and voluntary sectors. If hierarchies are governed through administrative orders, and markets are coordinated through competition and prices, networks are governed through mechanisms based on trust.
In February 1980, the Fifth Plenum of the Eleventh Congress of the CPC passed a document in twelve points, entitled Some Principles for Political Life Within the Party (here, in Chinese). This text never received much attention…at least in the West, despite its claims that it was “an important piece of Party legislation” regulating the political life of members of the CPC. While the temptation to read the Principles against the over-abused bios/Zoe dichotomy might be strong – and fashionable – in imperial China, matters
of state were not debated on the agora by those Greek citizens endowed with bios. Also, the notion of bios does not exist in Chinese thought, where ideas about physical life are expressed through the characters sheng, ming, and Huo, (and ideas about what allows physical life to come into existence and to continue are conveyed by qi, shen, and jing.)